Civil Rights:


Overview: The 70's was a good decade for a huge change and equality. The civil rights idea was now a main focus point and many protests were held. La Raza Unida, a Latino political movement, occured 1970. In 1971, Gloria Steinem helped found the National Womens Political Caucus which encouraged women to join political office. The Alaska Native Land Claim Settlement Act, which gave 40 million acres to Native Americans was also passed. In 1972, Congress banned gender discrimination in any educational programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Equal Rights Amendment went into action around the same time. It said that no rights can be denied in any state because of gender. AIM leader Russell Means led a protest in March known as Trail of Broken Treaties because of the treary violations the U.S government preformed against Native Americans. The Indian Education Act of 1972 and the Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act in 1975 were both meant to give Native Americans the right to have better control over their childrens education. 1973 brought the case Roe v. Wade, which fought for women to be able to choose to have an abortion in the first three months of pregnancy. By 1975, 19 women were in congress.

071014_SO02_ERA_wide-horizontal.jpg
Womens Rights Movement


Example 1: Is abortion a legal right? During 1973, Roe vs. Wade was a movement regarding a women's right to make abortion legal. The United States had said it violated the terms of the constitution under the fourteenth amendment. The movement was taken to the United States Supreme Court. It was considered a “Landmark Decision” The official decision was to be made on January 22, 1973. Each court held their own opinion on the subject. Roe had believed that it was the women’s right to an abortion, and it should also be considered a “right of privacy”. The decision of the court was that they indeed could not violate the “right of privacy”, which was included in the Bill of Rights. This case had taken place and rested in Texas.
Primary Document 1: time magazine
Primary Document 2: Roe vs. Wade


Example 2: On May 4, 1970 four students were killed at Kent State College for protesting against the war. Nine students were wounded. One of the students had been shot, who wasn’t part of the protest, and she had been walking to class. Another was shot in the back. It had been said that between the guards 61 and 67 shots had been fired in just thirteen short seconds. The bodies of the teenage protesters lay across the parking lot. Kent State had closed for six weeks after the shootings had occurred.
Primary Document 1: Kent State
Primary Document 2: Kent State Massacre Picture


trippy.jpg
Drugs Provoked in the 1970's


Culture:


Overview: The divorce rate doubled by the 1970's. Homosexual organizations became open to fight. The 1970s was a time for cultural change and spiritual freedom. Books, magazines and movies addressed more blunt topics. Waterbeds were a greatly used new invention. by 1970, there was a wide
andy-warhol-effect-all.jpg
Andy Warhol art
spread use of drugs leading to overdoses, drug dependence, and mental and physical breakdowns. Both Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix died from drug overdoses. People felt drugs helped them escape from the struggling reality of the economy. Alternative rock was extremely popular, including artists like The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, and Led Zeppelin. Pop art (popular art) took over pottery and sculpting. Andy Warhol influenced pop art drastically. Bell bottem jeans and overalls were popular clothing. Also bright strange patterns and plaid button up shirts. Popular TV shows: All In The Family, Good Times, Happy Days, M*A*S*H, Sanford and Son, and The Waltons.




Example 1: The oh so famous soft and pop rock music had been brought into the homes of American’s. It was the age of the disco, and it had taken over. Music had not only affected people in what they listened to, but it had also influenced the way they had dressed as well. They wore their hair long, and drugs had become a normal activity, not just a helpful hand in protesting. As the disco age swept the nation, more and more American’s had joined in.
Primary Document 1: Rolling Stones Magazine
Primary Document 2: Flash Back


Example 2: It’s hard to believe that clothing could make such a huge impact on other things besides fashion. Women especially had taken their best advantage to what they wore. Whether it would be mini skirts, maxi dresses, halter tops or even trousers, women were able to express themselves however they found fit. Let’s not forget about the men, who wore anything from tie-dyed shirts, ripped jeans and bell-bottoms. Some called this fashion era the “Anything Goes” where people were free to wear whatever, whenever, they pleased.
Primary Document 1: JCPenny Catalogue
Primary Document 2: Fashion Gallery



Economics:


0483_lg.jpg
President Nixon and his wife in China

Overview: By the 1970's, America had reached inflation. With the percent of inflation raising from 3% to 6% by 1973, up to 6% of American citizens were unemployed. Inflation and unemployment together in this time were refurred to as stagflation. Inflation was caused partly because of Lyndon Johnson's attempt to pay for the Vietnam was and the Great Society. Also because of the loss of the trade markets to Germany and Japan. Unemployment accured because labor grew by 30 million workers and jobs couldn't support everyone and all the wages. The U.S also suggered from dependency on foreign oil- when the U.S sent military aid to Isreal (a close ally) during Yom Kippur War with Egypt and Syria, the Arab oil providers stopped sale to the U.S. American then experienced a recession in 1971. President Nixon successfully attempted to deal with communist countries. Realpolitik was the way of thinking and negotiating. It was a way to deal with nations practically and flexibly, with military involvement and negotiation. Also a related term was détente, a way of easing cold war tensions. Nixon stepped further into fixing differences between the 2 countries by going to China to show America he could fairly negotiate in 1972.





Example 1: On October 15, 1973 the OPEC ( Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries ) had decided to no longer ship oil to countries that had supported Israel, meaning the United States was out of luck. This had caused oil prices to sky rocket all around the world. It was said that the OPEC “had little impact from its founding in 1960 until 1973”, that’s when the OPEC was growing stronger, due to demands for oil from the middle east being so high. An estimated 85% of American’s had drove to their work each day, so the need for oil wasn’t about to go down. President Nixon had put an “extension of Daylight Savings Time and a total ban on the sale of gasoline on Sunday’s.”
Primary Document 1: Time Magazine
Primary Documents 2: Oil Embargo


Example 2: Who would have thought that playing a sport could earn you a good salary? Pro sports had also become popular during the 1970’s. Basketball, hockey, and soccer well getting to be well known professional sports everywhere. Anywhere from World figure skating championships, International ski flying, and Heavyweight Championships, sports had hit the 1970’s drastically. Many American’s and people around the world were becoming involved in watching, playing, and being a number one fan of their favorite sporting events across the nation.
Primary Document 1: Sports Illustrated
Primary Document 2: ESPN



Technology:


Overview: Inventions: Email and the Floppy Disk (1971), the Barcode and Genetic Engineering (1973), Lazer Printer and Personal Computer (1975). Also the Card Accessed Electronic Lock, the Video Game, Microwave Oven, and the Jumbo Jet.

microwave.jpg
Microwave Oven
_PCXEROX.GIF
Computer
odyssey.jpg
Video Games











Example 1: During the 1970’s, computer technology had become a huge improvement and work of success. Many companies had started to use computers as a way to help expand, or even keep track of information. Not only were computers used in businesses, but people had also used them in their homes, as they grew more and more dependent on technology. It was said that over 55,000 people had bought the Tandy TRS-80 computer within the first year of its release.
Primary Document 1: Time Magazine
Primary Document 2: Computers


Example 2: Boeing’s Commercial Airplane unit had created a new making of the 747, naming it the “Jumbo Jet”. The jet had held a first class lounge, and was manufactured for the purpose of holding more passengers. It was said to carry about 490 people. It was looked at as a huge break in technology and air flight, because it would hopefully give people the chance to meet and discover new areas and people across the world.
Primary Document 1: Jumbo Jet
Primary Document 2: Jumbo Jet Takes Over


Cold War:


Overview: President Nixon and the US troops invaded Cambodia on April 30, 1970 in a succeeded attempt to clear fourteen supply centers. Colleges in the US had protested, which lead to dangerously killing, and wounding many. Congress repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution on December 31, 1970. The Pentagon Papers became widely popular, giving statements that the US



atomicblast.jpg
Atomic Bomb
199825_f520.jpg
Military Plan
i4_a3_1b.jpg
Military Tanks












Example 1: The Cold War had still been struggling and putting up conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States. The tension continued to rise as the fight between Liberalism and Communism bashed heads.
Primary Document 1: Soviet Union
Primary Document 2: Time Magazine Article


Example 2: The Vietnam War which has lasted from 1959-1975, had

Primary Document 1: Vietnam War
Primary Document 2: Article








Facts about the 1970's:

Population: 204,879,000
Estimated Unemployed: 4,088,000
Average Salary: $7,564
Gallon of Gas: 36 ¢
Cost of New Car: $4,000
Milk cost: 33 ¢
Bread cost: 24 ¢
Life Expectancy: Male - 67.1 Female - 74.8